King of Lydia, Shews his Wife by Stealth to Gyges, One of his Ministers, As She
Goes to Bed
This image illustrates
version of the tale of Gyges.
in which a man exposes his female partner, or images of her, to other people for
the term is derived from ancient King
who made a plot to show his unaware naked wife to his servant
Gyges of Lydia.
After discovering Gyges while he was watching her naked, Candaules' wife ordered
him to choose between killing himself and killing her husband in order to repair
the vicious mischief.
this behavior is taken to the point of allowing complete sexual relations, a
practice defined by many English speaking people as
A related term is
which is distinct in that it involves a control difference between the partner
that is having sex outside the couple and the partner who is not. In certain
cases the relation evolves into a stable union of three persons that is known as
ménage à trois.
was first defined by Richard von Krafft-Ebbing in in his book: Psychopathia
sexualis. Eine klinisch-forensische Studie (Stuttgart: Enke 1886).
hypothesized that the candaulist completely identifies with his partner's body,
and deep in his mind is showing himself.
instances of Candaulism
Richard Worsley, 7th Baronet of Appuldurcombe
against George Bissett for "criminal
that is adultery with
revealed an incident in which Sir Richard had assisted Bissett to spy on Lady
Worsley taking a bath.[
agent caught spying for the
took explicit photographs of his wife, Bonnie, and sent them to his good friend
Jack Hoschouer during the latter's tour in Vietnam. Later Hanssen invited
Hoschouer to clandestinely observe him having sex with his wife during his
occasional visits to the Hanssen household. Initially Hoschouer watched through
a window from outside the house. Later, Hanssen
appropriated video equipment from the FBI
to set up
to allow Hoschouer to watch from his guest bedroom.
also posted sexually-explicit stories to the Internet crafted to allow readers
who knew the Hanssens to identify them, also without his wife's knowledge.
In a carnival party, Gilda gives her lover a bill asking him "why are you
Cuckolding me ?" .
Jules et Jim
Knife in the Water
(Nóż w wodzie)
Irma la Douce
Belle de Jour
Il merlo maschio
Pasquale Festa Campanile),
La Dernière femme
The Tin Drum
(1982, by Reiner Werner
I miei primi quarant'anni
Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Henry & June
Maria de Medeiros.
The Bonfire of the Vanities
Brian De Palma)
(Lunes de fiel)
Kristin Scott Thomas,
La Reine Margot
Une femme française
The English Patient
Katherine reads aloud the account of Candaules and Gyges from Herodotus's
Eyes Wide Shut,
a book by
How much do you love me?,
(Combien tu m'aimes?)
Memoirs of a Geisha